Polyclinic IVF located in Zagreb, Croatia belongs to the best IVF clinics in GCR rating, therefore we decided to ask Prof. Velimir Šimunić, PhD several questions connected to the male and female infertility causes.
The incidence of infertility is on the rise. This frequency is almost 17% in Croatia. Female and male causes of infertility are equally represented. The main reason for women’s infertility is postponing birth. Due to changed worldview and socioeconomic reasons, women are deciding on the first pregnancy in the thirties, the age of unfortunately decreasing fertility. From the age of 32, the ovarian reserve is rapidly decreasing and there are fewer healthy neural cells remaining, that cannot be restored.
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That natural fact has to be accepted. It is clear that in the fourth decade there is a greater likelihood of emergence of a number of gynaecological organs diseases, or their consequences are manifested.
The main problem of female infertility
* Inflammation of gynaecological organs
* Abnormalities of the uterus
* Ovarian cysts and tumours
* Consequences of gynaecological operations
* Obesity, unhealthy life
* Environmental Causes
* Cycle disorders and no ovulation
Nowadays, many women have problems with ovulation because of the following issues:
- Eating disorders – such as anorexia or bulimia
- Problems with period
- Significant loss of body fat or extreme body activity
- Tumour or cyst
- Hormone imbalance
- Alcohol or drug use
Evaluation of infertility
- Pelvic exams
- Urine test
- Blood test
- Breast exam
- Exam of cervical mucus and tissues (finding out if ovulation is occurring)
- Use of laparoscopy to determine if any blockage, adhesions or scar tissue cause any problems
- Ultrasound can be done either vaginally or abdominally
- Hysteroscopy looking for uterine abnormalities with the very small telescope
- HSG – the type of x-ray used by a specialist to find any blockage in the abdomen
- Sonohystogram is the way to look for abnormalities or problem by the combination of ultrasound and saline injected into the uterus
These are the causes of reduced fertility 4 to 5 times more often in a woman over the age of 40 compared to women who are 15 years younger. Pair older than 41 has 6 times more difficulty achieving pregnancy. Women older than 42 in 50% of cases are infertile.
Female infertility prevention
Indeed, the female infertility is mostly caused by genetic problems, illness or older age. On the other hand, there are certain activities or steps which can help to decrease the possibility of being infertile.
- Practising safe sex
- Regular GYN check-ups
- No frequent consumption of heavy alcohol
- Avoiding smoking or illegal drugs
- Good personal hygiene
Female infertility is mostly treated in the following ways:
- Undertake surgery to remove blockage or tissues
- Use of medicaments, antibiotics or hormones
- Taking of different supplements to improve fertility or to stimulate ovulation
Symptoms and signs that should indicate men’s infertility are rare, and the simplest way is to semen analyze (the spermiogram).
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Symptoms of male infertility
* In 1 year of communion no pregnancy occurs (when the male partner is older than 42 years, it is even more difficult)
* Ejaculate and ejaculation disorders
* Testicular surgery in a childhood (or later)
* Some viral pediatric diseases (eg parotitis)
* Serious chronic diseases, endocrinological disorders
* Testicular vein enlargement (so-called varicocele)
* Inflammation of the urogenital system
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