Understanding Dermatology – Skin diseases of the 21st century
Our skin is not only a protective layer. It is an organic system that regulates body temperature, registers stimuli, both painful and pleasant ones, prevents substances from entering the body and protects against harmful effects of the sun. Everything that damages the function of the skin or its appearance may have serious health consequences just as the changes in our skin, which require regular dermatological examinations.
The dermatovenerology specialist from Bagatin Clinic, doctor Jolanda Kanižaj Rajković has singled out the most common skin diseases. Most of them are “well – known” thanks to many celebrities who spoke publicly about their problems. For example, Prince William and Renee Zellweger are suffering from rosacea, and Kim Kardashian has recently disclosed in her reality show that she is suffering from psoriasis.
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Rosacea is a skin condition characterized by occasional or permanent facial skin redness, the appearance of facial capillaries, and / or acne-like inflammatory changes.
Additionally, it may be accompanied by burning sensation, especially when applying facial creams. Emotional stress, hot drinks, alcohol, spicy food, cold or heat, wind or hot baths can cause facial redness.
Rosacea mainly affects people with a light skin complexion, and there are various types of therapy. It is treated by using local antibiotics, retinoids, immunosuppressants, alpha agonists, and, in the most severe cases with corticosteroids.
Etiology is unknown, but there are certain known factors that play a part in its development, such as an increased number of blood vessels close to the face surface and increased blood flow, UV exposure and a specific mite.
Laser treatments are the foundation for treating rosacea. Bagatin Clinic uses Quadro Star Yellow laser whose laser beam of a certain wavelength selectively absorbs red blood cells which leads to the closure of visible blood vessels on the face, reduction of redness and improvement of symptoms. Also, proper skin care and UV protection is mandatory.
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease, which causes increased thickening of affected skin parts. It is a series of inflammatory skin processes triggered by reactions to their own cells, for which there is a genetic predisposition.
Symptoms include red patches of skin covered with thick, silvery scales, usually in the elbows, knees, scalp, genitals and body.
Besides skin and nails, it may also affect the joints. Certain systemic or environmental factors such as stress or illness can cause the activation of the disease. Psoriasis is characterized by a so-called Koebner’s phenomenon, ie, the development of psoriatic lesions after irritation or trauma in the area which had not been affected before.
Psoriasis treatment may include local remedies, for example, corticosteroids, vitamin D analogues or retinoids, systemic drugs such as methotrexate, biological drugs, phototherapy, stress reduction and skin moisturizing agents.
The word “vitiligo” has lately been used more frequently. It is a skin and mucosa disease characterized by the disappearance of pigmentation in smaller or larger areas, including the face. Model Chantelle Winnie has raised public awareness regarding this disease and, in some respect, popularized it worldwide. Even though only one to two percent of the population suffers from this disease.
It is an immune response directed towards the cell in the skin that produces the pigment, and this reaction ends with its destruction. The genetic factor is one of the factors of vitiligo development because there is an increased frequency of vitiligo in some families. Vitiligo is not a threat to the overall health of the body.On the other hand, it can occur together with some other illnesses that are created by a similar, autoimmune mechanism (an immune response to its own cell) such as thyroid disease or diabetes.
This disease can greatly affect the quality of life, and it usually occurs around the age of 20, with equal probability in both sexes. Vitiligo initially manifests through small, white patches, accompanied by an itching sensation.
Over time, the skin changes spread and affect the knees, elbows, face (around the eyes and lips), armpits, abdomen, lower legs, back, genitals, knuckles. Also, changes may occur in the oral mucosa and hair.
Phototherapy has proven to be a very effective therapy. Furthermore, corticosteroids and vitamin D drugs may also be used. Good results of re-pigmentation, especially in smaller patches, in Bagatin Clinic is achieved through Dermapen treatments.
It is a product that naturally stimulates skin regeneration. During this treatment, very small surgical needles are used that vertically penetrate the skin at 90 degrees, thus causing surface damage to the skin to stimulate its regeneration. It is necessary to do more treatments in a four-week gap between each.
We can say that atopic dermatitis is the inflammatory skin disease of the 21st century since its incidence in recent years has increased by 2 to 3 times. The skin of the affected person loses too much moisture from the epidermal layer, causing it to become very dry, and its defensiveness is reduced.
Characteristic redness and dryness of the skin appear, with itchiness and occasional wounds and scabs in the affected areas which are often caused by intense scratching.
Atopic dermatitis can affect the skin around the eyes, eyelids, eyebrows and eyelashes. Scratching and rubbing your eyes may cause skin changes. Some people with atopic dermatitis develop an additional layer of skin called “atopic fold”.
Furthermore, some people experience hyperpigmentation of the eyelids. This means that the skin darkens from inflammation or high temperature (allergic glow).
The goal of the treatment is to reduce and eliminate the symptoms. Corticosteroids and immunomodulators are used in the form of creams. Special attention is paid to skin care education as preserving the role of the skin as a barrier is the most important factor in the maintenance phase, that is, to prevent the changes in the skin from repeating.